Rhetorical Structures of Introductions in Soft and Hard Science International Journals Written by Indonesian Scholars

Sahira Nurul Luthfianda, Eri Kurniawan, Wawan Gunawan


This study investigates the similarities and disparities of the rhetorical organizations of introduction sections in soft and hard science international journals written by Indonesian scholars and of the linguistic features employed to signal the moves. A corpus of ten introductions in the field of soft and hard science (five introductions each) was analyzed based on Swales' (2004) Create A Research Space (CARS) model. Findings were obtained through analyzing the moves and steps, as well as the linguistic realizations of the introductions. The analysis reveals that while Step 1 of Move 3 was an obligatory step, Step 1B of Move 2 and Step 2 of Move 3 were absent in both corpora. In addition, Step 1 of Move 2 was obligatory in soft science but was conventional in soft science corpus. Regarding linguistic features, the results show the influence of the different disciplines on the manifestation of metadiscoursal units (hedges and boosters) to enact the moves across the corpora, whereas no significant discrepancy was identified in the use of verb tense and sentence voice. The findings provide a better understanding of the rhetorical structure of research article introductions for and has pedagogical implications for the writing courses of Indonesian novice scholars.


CARS framework, genre, introductions, move analysis, research article

Full Text:



Adnan, Z. (2014). Prospects of Indonesian Research Articles (RAs) Being Considered for Publication in `Center’ Journals: A Comparative Study of Rhetorical Patterns of RAs in Selected Humanities and Hard Science Disciplines. In A. Łyda & K. Warchał (Eds.), Occupying Niches: Interculturality, Cross-culturality and Aculturality in Academic Research (pp. 79–99). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-02526-1_6

Afshar, H. S., Doosti, M., & Movassagh, H. (2018). A Genre Analysis of the Introduction Section of Applied Linguistics and Chemistry Research Articles. Iranian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 21(1), 163–214.

Altbach, P. G. (2013). The Imperial Tongue: English as the Dominating Academic Language. In P. G. Altbach (Ed.), The International Imperative in Higher Education (pp. 1–6). Sense. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-6209-338-6

Amnuai, W., & Wannaruk, A. (2013). An Analysis of Moves in Introductions in International and Thai Journal Research Articles. PASAA, 45, 61–90.

Anthony, L. (1999). Writing research article introductions in software engineering: How accurate is a standard model? IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication. https://doi.org/10.1109/47.749366

Bajwa, H., König, C. J., & Kunze, T. (2020). Evidence ‑ based understanding of introductions of research articles. Scientometrics, 124(1), 195–217. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-020-03475-9

Biber, D., Connor, U., & Upton, T. A. (2017). Discourse on the move: Using corpus analysis to describe discourse structure. John Benjamins.

Coleman, J. A. (2014). How to get published in English : Advice from the outgoing. System, 42, 404–411. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2014.01.004

Connor, U., Upton, T. A., & Kanoksilapatham, B. (2007). Introduction to move analysis. In Discourse on the Move: Using Corpus Analysis to Describe Discourse Structure (pp. 23–42). John Benjamins.

Ferguson, G., Pérez-Llantada, C., & Plo, O. (2011). English as an international language of scientific publication: a study of attitudes. World Englishes, 30(1), 41–59.

Graves, H., Moghaddasi, S., & Hashim, A. (2014). English for Specific Purposes “Let G = (V, E) be a graph”: Turning the abstract into the tangible in introductions in mathematics research articles. English for Specific Purposes, 36, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esp.2014.03.004

Holland, K., D. Duncombe, E. D., & Meester, W. (2014). Scopus journal FAQs: Helping to improve the submission & success process for editors & publishers. https://bdpu.org.ua/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/SC_FAQ-content-selection-process-22092014.pdf

Hyland, K. (2005). Metadiscourse. Continuum.

Joseph, R., Lim, J. M., Arifah, N., & Nor, M. (2014). Communicative moves in Forestry research introductions : Implications for the design of learning materials. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 134, 53–69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.04.224

Kanoksilapatham, B. (2015). Distinguishing textual features characterizing structural variation in research articles across three engineering sub-discipline corpora. English for Specific Purposes, 37, 74–86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esp.2014.06.008

Khedri, M., & Kritsis, K. (2018). Metadiscourse in Applied Linguistics and Chemistry Research Article Introductions. Journal of Research in Applied Linguistics, 9(2), 47–73.

Kurniawan, E., Dallyono, R., & Cahyowati, A. (2019). Exploring logical connectors in journals with different indexing levels : A comparison between international and national indexed journals. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 9(1), 76–84. https://doi.org/10.17509/ijal.v9i1.16088

Kurniawan, E., Lubis, A. H., Suherdi, D., & Danuwijaya, A. A. (2019). Rhetorical Organization of Applied Linguistics Abstracts : Does Scopus Journal Quartile Matter ? 19(November), 184–202.

Lim, J. M. (2012). How do writers establish research niches ? A genre-based investigation into management researchers ’ rhetorical steps and linguistic mechanisms. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 11(3), 229–245. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2012.05.002

Loi, C. K. (2010). Research article introductions in Chinese and English: A comparative genre-based study. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 9(4), 267–279. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2010.09.004

Milagros del Saz Rubio, M. (2011). A pragmatic approach to the macro-structure and metadiscoursal features of research article introductions in the field of Agricultural Sciences. English for Specific Purposes, 30(4), 258–271. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esp.2011.03.002

Ozturk, I. (2007). The textual organisation of research article introductions in applied linguistics: Variability within a single discipline. English for Specific Purposes, 26(1), 25–38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esp.2005.12.003

Öztürk, İ. (2018). Rhetorical Organisation of the Subsections of Research Article Introductions in Applied Linguistics. Novitas-ROYAL, 12(1), 52–65.

Rahman, M., Darus, S., & Amir, Z. (2017). Rhetorical Structure of Introduction in Applied Linguistics Research Articles. Educare: International Journal for Educational Studies, 9(February), 69–84.

Rochma, A. F., & Triastuti, A. (2020). Rhetorical styles of Introduction in English language teaching (ELT) research articles. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 10(2), 304–314.

Safnil. (2001). Rhetorical structure analysis of the Indonesian research articles. The Australian National University.

Salager-meyer, F. (2014). Journal of English for Academic Purposes Writing and publishing in peripheral scholarly journals : How to enhance the global in fl uence of multilingual scholars ? Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 13, 78–82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2013.11.003

Samraj, B. (2002). Introductions in research articles: variations across disciplines. English for Specific Purposes, 21, 1–17. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/S0889-4906(00)00023-5

Sheldon, E. (2011). Rhetorical differences in RA introductions written by English L1 and L2 and Castilian Spanish L1 writers. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 10(4), 238–251. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2011.08.004

Suherdi, D., Kurniawan, E., & Lubis, A. H. (2020). A genre analysis of research article ‘findings and discussion’ sections written by Indonesian undergraduate EFL students. 10(1), 59–72.

Swales, J. M. (1990). Genre analysis: English in academic and research settings. Cambridge University Press.

Swales, J. M. (2004). Research Genres: Explorations and applications. Cambridge University Press.

Swales, J. M., & Najjar, H. (1987). The Writing of Research Article Introductions. Written Communication, 4(2), 175–191.

Takimoto, M. (2014). A corpus-based analysis of hedges and boosters in English academic articles. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 5(1), 95–105.

Tessuto, G. (2015). Generic structure and rhetorical moves in English-language empirical law research articles: Sites of interdisciplinary and interdiscursive cross-over. English for Specific Purposes, 37, 13–26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esp.2014.06.002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21462/jeltl.v6i2.563


  • There are currently no refbacks.

JELTL (Journal of English Language Teaching and Linguistics); Web: www.jeltl.org; Email:[email protected]

Creative Commons License
JELTL by http://www.jeltl.org is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

Indexed and Abstracted BY: