A Text-Driven, Task-Based Approach to the Design of Materials for Teaching Intercultural Communicative Competence

John Harper

Abstract


Although a large body of research points to the need of providing English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners with intercultural communicative competence (ICC), questions remain as to exactly how ICC should be incorporated into the EFL curriculum. These questions arise in part due to issues of already-packed curricula which seem not to leave time for the teaching of ICC and in part due to issues of teacher preparedness. Additionally, questions arise concerning which culture should be taught. Taking into account materials used in the English Language Center (ELC) of Shantou University (Guangdong Province, China), this paper argues that a text-driven, task-based method of materials design allows for the inclusion of ICC across the EFL curriculum. It also argues that such a method lends itself to the teaching of ICC through a consideration of a variety of cultures.


Keywords


intercultural communicative competence, source culture, target culture, task-based learning and teaching, text-driven materials design

Full Text:

PDF

References


Allwright, D. (2005). From teaching points to learning points and beyond. TESOL Quarterly, 39(1), 9-31.

Allwright, R. L. (1984). Why don't learners learn what teachers teach? The interaction hypothesis. In D. M. Singleton & D. G. Little (Eds.), Language in formal and informal contexts (pp. 3-18). Dublin, Ireland: IRAAL.

Baker, W. (2012). From cultural awareness to intercultural awareness: Culture in ELT. ELT Journal, 66(1), 62-70.

Bao, D. (2013). Developing materials for speaking skills. In B. Tomlinson (Ed.), Developing materials for language teaching (pp. 407-428). London, UK: Bloomsbury.

Block, D. (2003). The social turn in language acquisition. Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press Ltd.

Byram, K., & Kramsch, C. (2008). Why is it so difficult to teach language as culture? The German Quarterly, 81(1), 20-34.

Byram, M. (1997). Teaching and assessing intercultural communicative competence. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.

Byram, M., Gribkova, B., & Starkey, H. (2002). Developing the intercultural dimension in language teaching: A practical introduction for teachers [Electronic Version]. Retrieved July 18, 2018 from http://www.lrc.cornell.edu/director/intercultural.pdf

Byram, M., & Wagner, M. (2018). Making a difference: Language teaching for intercultural and international dialogue. Foreign Language Annals, 51(1), 140-151.

Cortazzi, M., & Jin, L. (1999). Cultural mirrors: Materials and methods in the EFL classroom. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Culture in second language teaching and learning (pp. 196–219). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Crabbe, D. (2003). The quality of language learning opportunities. TESOL Quarterly, 37(1), 9-34.

Crabbe, D. (2007). Learning opportunities: Adding value to tasks. ELT Journal, 61(2), 117-125.

Donato, R. (2004). Aspects of collaboration in pedagogical discourse. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 24, 284-302.

Dörnyei, Z. (2001). Motivational strategies in the language classroom. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Dörnyei, Z., & Malderez, A. (1997). Group dynamics and foreign language teaching. System, 25(1), 65-81.

Dörnyei, Z., & Murphey, T. (2003). Group dynamics in the language classroom. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Durocher, D. O. (2007). Teaching sensitivity to cultural difference in the first-year foreign language classroom. Foreign Language Annals, 40(1), 143-160.

Ellis, R. (2003). Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Ellis, R. (2009). Task-based language teaching: Sorting out the misunderstandings. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 19(3), 221-246.

Ellis, R. (2010). Second language acquisition research and language-teaching materials. In N. Harwood (Ed.), English language teaching materials: Theory and practice (pp. 36-64). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Ellis, R. (2011). Macro- and micro-evaluations of task-based teaching. In B. Tomlinson (Ed.), Materials development in language teaching (pp. 212-235). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Furstenberg, G. (2010). Making culture the core of the language class: Can it be done? The Modern Language Journal, 94(2), 329-332.

Gudykunst, W. B., Lee, C. M., Nishida, T., & Ogawa, N. (2005). Theorizing about intercultural communication. In W. B. Gudykunst (Ed.), Theorizing about intercultural communication (pp. 3-32). Thousand Oaks, CA, USA: Sage.

Harper, J., & Chen, H-J. (2018). Group dynamics and student participation in a Chinese setting: Teacher and observer perspectives. Journal of English Language Teaching and Linguistics, 3(1), 21-40.

Henry, A., Korp, H., Sundqvist, P., & Thorsen, C. (2017). Motivational strategies and the reframing of English: Activity design and challenges for teachers in contexts of extensive extramural encounters. TESOL Quarterly. doi:10.1002/tesq.394.

Jolly, D., & Bolitho, R. (2011). A framework for materials writing. In B. Tomlinson (Ed.), Materials development in language teaching (pp. 107-134). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Kearney, E. (2010). Cultural immersion in the foreign language classroom: Some narrative possibilities. The Modern Language Journal, 94(2), 332-336.

Kiet Ho, S. T. (2009). Addressing culture in EFL classrooms: The challenge of shifting from a traditional to an intercultural stance. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 6(1), 63-76.

Kim, Y., Jung, Y., & Tracy-Ventura, N. (2017). Implementation of a localized task-based course in an EFL context: A study of students’ evolving perceptions. TESOL Quarterly 51(3), 632–660.

Kramsch, C. (1993). Context and culture in language teaching. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Kramsch, C. (1998). Language and culture. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Kumaravadivelu, B. (2002). Paying attention to inter- in intercultural communication. TESOL Journal, 11(1), 3-4.

Lantolf, J. P., & Thorne, S. L. (2006). Sociocultural theory and the genesis of second language development. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Luke, A. (1989). Open and closed texts: The ideological/semantic analysis of textbook narratives. Journal of Pragmatics, 13, 53-80.

McKay, S. L. (2000). Teaching English as an international language: Implications for cultural materials in the classroom. TESOL Journal, 9(4), pp. 7-11.

Mercer, N., & Howe, C. (2012). Explaining the dialogic processes of teaching and learning: The value and potential of sociocultural theory. Learning, Culture and Social Interaction, 1, 12-21.

Menard-Warwick, J. (2009). Co-constructing representations of culture in ESL and EFL classrooms: Discursive faultlines in Chile and California. The Modern Language Journal, 93(1), 30-45.

Moeller, A. J., & Faltin Osborn, S. R. (2014). A pragmatist perspective on building intercultural communicative competency: From theory to classroom practice. Foreign Language Annals, 47(4), 669-673.

Nation, I. S. P., & Macalister, J. (2010). Language curriculum design. New York, US & London, UK: Routledge.

Naughton, D. (2006). Cooperative strategy training and oral interaction: Enhancing small group communication in the language classroom. The Modern Language Journal, 90(2), 169-184.

Nunan, D. (1988). The learner-centred curriculum. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Nunan, D. (1995). Closing the gap between learning and instruction. TESOL Quarterly, 29(1), 133-158.

Nunan, D. (2004). Task-based language teaching. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Oxford, R. L. (1997). Cooperative learning, collaborative learning, and interaction: Three communicative strands in the language classroom. The Modern Language Journal, 81(4), 443-456.

Perry, L. B., & Southwell, L. (2011). Developing intercultural understanding and skills: Models and approaches. Intercultural Education, 22(6), 453-466.

Prabhu, N. S. (1987). Second language pedagogy. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Pulverness, A., & Tomlinson, B. (2013). Materials for cultural awareness. In B. Tomlinson (Ed.), Developing materials for language teaching (pp. 443-459). London, UK: Bloomsbury.

Richards, J. C. (2001). Curriculum Development in Language Teaching. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Robinson, P. (2011). Task-based language learning: A review of issues. Language Learning, 61(1), 1–36.

Saraceni, C. (2013). Adapting courses: A personal view. In B. Tomlinson (Ed.), Developing materials for language teaching (pp. 49-62). London, UK: Bloomsbury.

Savignon, S. J. (2003). Teaching English as communication: A global perspective. World Englishes, 22(1), 55-66.

Savignon, S. J., & Sysoyev, P. V. (2005). Cultural comparisons: Strategies for learners. Foreign Language Annals, 38(3), 357-365.

Scarino, A. (2010). Assessing intercultural capability in learning languages: A renewed understanding of language, culture, learning, and the nature of assessment. The Modern Language Journal, 94(2), 324-329.

Seedhouse, P. (2005). “Task” as research construct. Language Learning, 55(3), 533-570.

Sercu, L. (2002). Autonomous learning and the acquisition of intercultural communicative competence: Some implications for course development. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 15(1), 61-74.

Skehan, P. (1998). A cognitive approach to language learning. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Skehan, P. (2002). A non-marginal role for tasks. ELT Journal, 56(3), 289-295.

Skehan, P. (2003). Task-based instruction. Language Teaching, 36, 1-14.

Smith, L. (1976). English as an international auxiliary language. RELC Journal, 7(2), 38–42.

Snow, D. (2014). Encounters with Westerners: Improving skills in English and intercultural communication. Shanghai, China: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press.

Snow, D. (2015). English teaching, intercultural competence, and critical incident exercises. Language and Intercultural Communication, 15(2), 285-299.

Snow, D. (2016). Affective factors and interpretive judgments in intercultural encounters. Intercultural Communication Studies, 25(3), 19-32.

Spencer-Oatey, H., & Franklin, P. (2009). Intercultural interaction: A multidisciplinary approach to intercultural communication. London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

Tang, Y. (2006). Beyond behavior: Goals of cultural learning in the second language classroom. The Modern Language Journal, 90(1), 86-99.

Tomlinson, B. (2010). Principles of effective materials development. In N. Harwood (Ed.), English language teaching materials: Theory and practice (pp. 93-125). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Tomlinson, B. (2013a). Developing principled frameworks for materials development. In B. Tomlinson (Ed.), Developing materials for language teaching (pp. 95-118). London, UK: Bloomsbury.

Tomlinson, B. (2013b.) Materials evaluation. In B. Tomlinson (Ed.), Developing materials for language teaching (pp. 21-48). London, UK: Bloomsbury.

Van den Branden, K. (2009). Mediating between predetermined order and chaos: The role of the teacher in task-based language education. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 19(3), 264-285.

Walker, G. (2000). Performed culture: Learning to participate in another culture. In R. D. Lambert & E.

Shohamy (Eds.), Language policy and pedagogy (pp. 223-238). Philadelphia, US: John Benjamins.

Webb, N. B. (2009). The teacher’s role in promoting collaborative dialogue in the classroom. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 79, 1-28.

Wells, G. (1999). Dialogic inquiry: Toward a sociocultural practice and theory of education. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Weninger, C., & Kiss, T. (2013). Culture in English as a foreign language (EFL) textbooks: A semiotic approach. TESOL Quarterly, 47(4), 694-716.

Widdowson, H. G. (1994). The ownership of English. TESOL Quarterly, 28(2), 377–389.

Willis, J. (1996). A framework for task-based learning. London, UK: Longman.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21462/jeltl.v4i1.187

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.






JELTL (Journal of English Language Teaching and Linguistics); Web: www.jeltl.org; Email:journal.eltl@gmail.com


Creative Commons License
JELTL by http://www.jeltl.org is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License


Indexed and Abstracted BY: