Developing a Student Self-Disclosure Measure: A Pilot Study

Mohsine Jebbour


This pilot study was designed to introduce a student self-disclosure measure with 183 participants enrolled in the English department at a Moroccan university. The types of self-disclosures inherent in language learning theory guided the development of a ten-item questionnaire. The instrument measured the participants’ self-report of frequent self-disclosures with reference to the class they were attending. Upon collection of data, the questionnaire was subjected to exploratory factor analysis. The findings of the unrotation analysis showed that the student self-disclosure measure is unidimensional, as nine items loaded highest on the first factor and had an acceptable internal consistency. However, results from the rotation analysis revealed that the student self-disclosure measure consists of two dimensions, which were labelled as frequent types of self-disclosure and infrequent types of self-disclosure based on their mean scores. Although the seven items tapping frequent types of self-disclosure may be used to create a unidimensional measure, especially that the construct reached an acceptable internal reliability, there is room for ensuring a sound collection of data and analysis to improve the quality of the questionnaire in the main study.


student self-disclosure, unidimensional measure, English language classroom, university

Full Text:



Cayanus, J. L., & Martin, M. M. (2016). Teacher self-disclosure. In P.L. Witt (Ed.), Handbook of communication science: Vol: 16. Communication and Learning (pp.241-258). Berlin, Germany: DeGruyter Mouton.

Cayanus, J. L., Martin, M. M., & Goodboy, A. K. (2009). The relationship between teacher self-disclosure and student motives to communicate. Communication Research Reports, 26(2), 105-113.

Collins, N. L., & Miller, L. C. (1994). Self-disclosure and liking: a meta-analytic review. Psychological bulletin, 116(3), 457-475.

Derlega, V. J., Anderson, S., Winstead, B. A., & Greene, K. (2010). Positive disclosure among college students: What do they talk about, to whom, and why? Journal of Positive Psychology, 6(2), 119–130.

Derlega, V. J., Metts, S., Petronio, S., & Margulis, S. T. (1993). Self-Disclosure. Newburry Park, CA: SAGE Publications.

Derlega, V.J., Winstead, B.A., & Greene, K. (2008). Self-disclosure and starting a close relationship. In S. Sprecher, A. Wenzel & J. Harvey (Eds.), Handbook of relationship beginnings (pp. 153-174). New York: Psychology Press.

DeWine, S., Bennett, D.T., & Medcalf, L.D. (1978). Medeling self-disclosure in the classroom. Small Group Behavior, 9, 563-578.

Dörnyei, Z. (1994). Motivation and motivating in the foreign language classroom. Modern Language Journal, 78(3), 273-284.

Dörnyei, Z., & Muir, C. (2019). Creating a motivating classroom environment. In X. A. Gao (Ed.), Second handbook of English language teaching (pp. 1-18). New York: Springer.

Dunlap, J.C. & Lowenthal, P.R. (2013). What was your best learning experience? Our story about using stories to solve instructional problems. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 25(2), 269-274.

Ebersole, P., McFall, M., & Brandt, C. (1977). Imitation and prior classroom contact as determinants of reciprocal self-disclosure. Psychological reports, 41(1), 87-91.

Goldstein, G. S., & Benassi, V. A. (1994). The relation between teacher self-disclosure and student classroom participation. Teaching of Psychology, 21(4), 212-217.

Guilloteaux, M. J., & Dörnyei, Z. (2008). Motivating language learners: A classroom-oriented investigation of the effects of motivational strategies on student motivation. TESOL Quarterly, 42(1), 55-77.

Hanauer, D. I. (2012). Meaningful literacy: Writing poetry in the language classroom. Language Teaching, 45(1), 105-115.

Hinkin, T. R. (1998). A brief tutorial on the development of measures for use in survey questionnaires. Organizational Research Methods, 2(1), 104-121.

Iida, A. (2016). Poetic identity in second language writing: Exploring an EFL learner’s study abroad experience. Eurasian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 2(1), 1-14.

Jebbour, M. (2018a). University students’ perceptions of the effects of teacher self-disclosure in the English language classroom. Journal of English Language Teaching and Linguistics, 3(3), 275-285.

Jebbour, M. (2018b). The impact of self-disclosure on EFL students’ motivation, participation, and writing proficiency in higher education in Morocco: The case of the Fez Dhar El Mahraz department of English (Unpublished Dissertation). Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, Fez, Morocco.

Jebbour, M., & Mouaid, F. (2019). The impact of teacher self-disclosure on student participation in the university English language classroom. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 31(3), 424-436.

Lannutti, P. J., & Strauman, E. C. (2006). Classroom communication: The influence of instructor self-disclosure on student evaluations. Communication Quarterly 54(1), 89-99.

Larson-Freeman, D., & Anderson, M. (2012). Techniques and principles in language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Mckay, M., Davis, M., & Fanning, P. (2009). Messages: The communication skills book. Oakland: New Harbinger Publication, Inc.

Meeks, B. S., Hendrick, S. S., & Hendrick, C. (1998). Communication, love and relationship satisfaction. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 15(6), 755-773.

Mercer, S. (2013). Working with language learner histories from three perspectives: Teachers, learners and researchers. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 3(2), 161-185.

Myers, S. (1998). Students’ self-disclosure in the college classroom. Psychological Reports, 83(7), 1067-1070.

Richards, J. C. & Rogers, T. S. (2001). Approaches and methods in language teaching (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rouse, R. E. & Bradley, D. (1989). Personally shared reading: How teacher self-disclosure effects student self-disclosure. Middle School Journal, 20(3), 34-35, 38.

Stotsky, S. (1995). The uses and limitations of personal or personalized writing in writing theory, research, and instruction. Reading Research Quarterly, 30 (4), 758-776.

Szczygiel, P. (2019). Navegating student self-disclosure through a relational lens: Examples of increased self-awareness from a social classroom practice. Clinical Social Work Journal, 1-8.

West, R., & Turner, L. (2010). Introducing communication theory: Analysis and application (4th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill.

Wheeless, L. R., & Grotz, J. (1976). Conceptualization and measurement of reported self- disclosure. Human Communication Research, 2(4), 338-346.

Yong, A. G., & Pearce, S. (2013). A beginner’s guide to factor analysis: Focusing on exploratory factor analysis. Tutorials in quantitative methods for psychology, 9(2), 79-94.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

JELTL (Journal of English Language Teaching and Linguistics); Web:; Email:[email protected]

Creative Commons License
JELTL by is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

Indexed and Abstracted BY: