Gender Representation in Men’s and Women’s Fashion Magazine

Marselus Suarta Kasmiran, Ouda Teda Ena


This research aims to study the use of basic and specific color terms used in men’s and women’s magazines. The use of specific color terms was proposed by Lakoff (1973). The specific and basic color terms may distinguish the gender of the writers in the magazines. The study analyzed women’s writings in Cosmopolitan Magazine published electronically by and men’s writings in GQ Magazine published electronically by The data was analyzed using Lakoff’s (1975) and Steinvall’s (2002) theoretical frameworks. Lakoff (1973) argued that women used language features differently. One of the language features stated by Lakoff (1973) was the use of specific color terms. The findings of the research show that there has been a change of specific color term usages, both genders are now using basic and specific color terms. However, men use less specific color terms. The use of language features may be affected by values – ideology, culture and personality from the language users.


Basic Color Terms, Specific Color Terms, Gender, Language Use

Full Text:



Abdurahman, N. H. (2017). An Investigation of Different Language Choice through Personal Pronouns in the Twitter. Indonesian Journal of EFL and Linguistics, 2(1), 1-13.

Bamman, D., Eisenstein, J., & Schnoebelen, T. (2014). Gender identity and lexical variation in social media. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 18(2), 135-160.

Berlin, B., & Kay, P. (1969). Basic color terms: Their university and evolution. California UP.

Bragg, S., Renold, E., Ringrose, J., & Jackson, C. (2018). ‘More than boy, girl, male, female’: exploring young people’s views on gender diversity within and beyond school contexts. Sex Education, 1-15.

Buonanno, M. (2014). Gender and media studies. Anàlisi: quaderns de comunicació i cultura, 50, 0005-25.

Budiman, K. (2002). Analisis wacana: dari linguistik sampai dekonstruksi. Diterbitkan untuk Pusat Studi Kebudayaan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta oleh Kanal.

Collins, T. N. (2016). Complexity in a Gender Binary: The Challenge to Universities to Include Transgender Students.

Eckert, P., & McConnell-Ginet, S. (2003). Gender and language.

Fairclough, N. (1992). Discourse and social change (Vol. 10). Cambridge: Polity press.

Fairclough, N. (1992). Discourse and text: Linguistic and intertextual analysis within discourse analysis. Discourse & Society, 3(2), 193-217.

Fairclough, N., & Wodak, R. (1997). Critical discourse analysis: an overview’, in Teun van Dijk (ed.), Discourse and Interaction, London: Sage, pp. 67-97.

Fairclough, N. (2013). Critical discourse analysis: The critical study of language. Routledge.

Ferguson, C. (2016). Confines of the gender binary: The exclusion of transgender people in North American society. The Post, 1(1).

Harris, M. (1977, November 17). Why men dominate women. The New York Times. Retrieved from

Hosseini, M., & Tammimy, Z. (2016). Recognizing users gender in social media using linguistic features. Computers in Human Behavior, 56, 192-197.

Holmes, J. (2014). An introduction to sociolinguistics. Routledge.

Holmes, J., & Wilson, N. (2017). An introduction to sociolinguistics. Routledge.

Lakoff, R. (1973). Language and woman's place. Language in society, 2(1), 45-79.

Lakoff, R. (1975). Language and woman's place. Journal of Women s Health.

Rahman, M. S. (2016). The advantages and disadvantages of using qualitative and quantitative approaches and methods in language “Testing and Assessment” research: A literature review. Journal of Education and Learning, 6(1), 102.

Scharrer, E., & Ramasubramanian, S. (2015). Intervening in the media's influence on stereotypes of race and ethnicity: The role of media literacy education. Journal of Social Issues, 71(1), 171-185.

Segrave, J. O. (2016). Challenging the gender binary: the fictive and real world of quidditch. Sport in Society, 19(8-9), 1299-1315.

Steinvall, A. (2002). English colour terms in context (Doctoral dissertation, Umeå universitet).

Talbot, M. (2010). Language and gender. Polity.

Titscher, S., Mayer, M., Wodak, R., & Vetter, E. (2009). Metode Analisis Teks dan Wacana. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

Varghese, M., Morgan, B., Johnston, B., & Johnson, K. A. (2005). Theorizing language teacher identity: Three perspectives and beyond. Journal of language, Identity, and Education, 4(1), 21-44.

Ward, L. M., Vandenbosch, L., & Eggermont, S. (2015). The impact of men's magazines on adolescent boys' objectification and courtship beliefs. Journal of adolescence, 39, 49-58.

Women in national parliaments. (2018, April 1). Retrieved from

Zimman, L. (2017). Transgender language reform: some challenges and strategies for promoting trans-affirming, gender-inclusive language.

, women and political leadership – female heads of state and heads of government. (2018, February 20). Retrieved from



  • There are currently no refbacks.

JELTL (Journal of English Language Teaching and Linguistics); Web:; Email:[email protected]

Creative Commons License
JELTL by is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

Indexed and Abstracted BY: