The Graphic Organizers (GOs) in the Development of Communicative Skills in Class Presentation

Dedi Aprianto, Ikang Murapi


This study aims at uncovering on how a language skill could properly be embedded to import another skill’s impact. The effectiveness of GOs with patterned structures and their functions can facilitate English spoken proficiency in class presentation. In order to obtain the formulated research purpose, non-participation observation had been carried out in support with video-recording. The positive effectiveness of GOs could be varying towards certain English proficiency levels; however, the negative impacts produced by the elementary learners indicate the psychological problems and the technical problems. GOs could worthily be as recommended ELL media, since they can effectively stimulate EFL intermediate learners’ intrinsic elements of learning achievement. Those therefore could effectively scaffold the intermediate learners through questioning technique in form of guided-Graphic Organizers (GOs). GOs could dynamically be incorporated into multimodal ways; by re-writing, chronological overview, and note-taking which would be employed by the upper intermediate learners. There are three situations which must be required for advanced learners; experiences-associated learning, topic-based selection, and the comprehensive understanding of GOs concepts and the topics of reading passages. Thereby, GOs can be regarded as marvelous strategies that can positively contribute to induce EFL learners’ psychological achievements and effectively promote English speaking performance.


communicative skills development, class presentation, graphic organizers (GOs)

Full Text:



Akbar, F. (2014). The Role of Reading in Improving Speaking Skills in the Context of Teaching English as a Foreign Language. International Journal of English Language and Translation Studies, 2 (4), 92-98

Al Hosni, S. (2014). Speaking Difficulties Encountered by Young Learners. International Journal of Studies in English Language and Literature (IJSELL), Vol. 2 (6), 22-30.

Avila, H.A. (2015). Creativity in the English Class: Activities to Promote EFL Learning. HOW, Vol. 22 (2), 91-103.

Aziz, A. Z. A. (2018). Exploring the Use of Direct and Indirect Learning Strategies on Graphic Organizers in the ESL Classroom. 4th International Conference ILANNS, 30-38

Biria, R. & Sharifi, M.M. (2013). Graphic Organizers and Reading Comprehension Ability: Evidence from Iranian EFL University Students. Sino-US English Teaching, 10 (5), 358-365

Blaikie, N. (2000). Designing Social Research: The Logic Anticipation. Cambridge: Polity Press

Brooks, G & Wilson, J. (2014). Using Oral Presentations to Improve Students’ English Language Skills. Kwanzaa Gakuin University Humanities Review, Vol. 19, 199-212.

Chien, C. W. (2012). Use of Graphic Organizers in a Language Teaching Professional Development. English Language Teaching, 5 (1), 49-57

Colliot, T. & Jamet, E. (2018). Does Self-generating a Graphic Organizer while Reading Improve Students’ Learning? Computers & Education, 126, 13-22

Davoudi, M. & Yousefi, D. (2016). The Effect of Graphic Organizer Instruction on Reading Comprehension Improvement of EFL Learners in Iran. International Conference on Literature and Linguistics (irLIT). 1-14

Gil-Garcia, A. & Villegas, J. (2003). Engaging Minds, Enhancing Comprehension and Constructing Knowledge through Visual Representations. Paper presented at a Conference on World Association for Case Method Research and Application. Retrieved from

Guardado, M. (2001). The Facilitative Effect of Graphic Organizers in TESL. Theoretikos: la revsita electronica de la UFG VI (1). Retrieved from

Heriansyah, H. (2012). Speaking Problems Faced by the English Department Students of Syiah Kuala University. Lingua Didaktika, Vol. 6 (1), 37-44.

Hew, K. et al., (2004). The Eight Events of Instruction: An Instructional Method Based on the Constructivism Paradigm. In C. Crawford, N et al., Proceedings of the Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education. Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, 4110-4115

Ilyashenko, L.K. et al., (2019). Development of Communicative Competencies of Students in the Context of Blended Learning. Amazonia Investiga, Vol. 8 (18), 313-322.

Jiang, X. & Grabe, W. (2007). Graphic Organizers in Reading Instruction: Research Findings and Issues. Reading in a Foreign Language, 24 (1), 84-105

Kansizoglu, H.B. (2017). The Effect of Graphic Organizers on Language Teaching and Learning Areas: A Meta-Analysis Study Education and Science, 42 (191), 139-164

Larasati, R.H. (2020). Self-Regulated Learning on Students’ Oral Presentation Performance in Academic Speaking Class. RETAIN (Research on English Language Teaching in Indonesia), Vol. 8 (4), 128-138.

Mart, C.T., (2012). Developing Speaking Skills through Reading. International Journal of English Linguistics, 2 (6), 91-96

Mayer, R.E. (2014). Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning. In Mayer, R.E (Ed.). The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning: Second Edition. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Minasyan, E. T. (2016). Developing Oral Proficiency via Creativity in EFL Classroom. Plekhanov Russian Academy of Economics, 1-3.

Nan, C. (2018). Implications of Interrelationship among Four Language Skills for Higher School English Teaching. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 9 (2), 418-423

Sam, D.P and Rajan, P. (2013). Using Graphic Organizers to Improve Reading Comprehension Skills for Middle School ESL Students. English Language Teaching, 6 (2), 155-170

Samuel, S.J. & Farstrup, A. E. (2011). What Research has to say about Reading Instruction. International Reading Association, 51-75

Sternberg, R.J. & Zhang, L.F. (2000). Perspectives on Cognitive, Learning, and Thinking Styles. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Tobar, M.C.S. & Moya, N.P.G.(2017). Graphic Organizers as a Reading Strategy: Research Findings and Issues. Revista Publicando, 4 (12), 247-258

Tsang, A. (2017). Enhancing Learners’ Awareness of Oral Presentation (Delivery) Skills in the Context of Self-Regulated Learning. Active learning in higher education, 1-12.

Tsoupikova, H. et al., (2019). Developing Students’ Cognitive and Communicative Skills When Learning Foreign Languages. SHS Web of Conferences 69, CILDIAH.

Varghese, J.L. (2015). Relationship between Oral Language and Reading Comprehension for English Learners: A Systematic Review. School of Education Student Captone Thesis and Dissertations,132. 1-91

Vasquez, B.J.S. et al., (2020). Communicative Skills as a result of Successful Intelligence. Psychology and Education, Vol. 57 (1), 62-69.

Villas, M. (2016). Extensive Reading: Its Effects to Learners’ General Language Competence. The Online Journal of New Horizons in Education, 6 (4), 80-85

Zaini, D.P et al., (2010). The Effect of Graphic Organize on Students’ Learning in School. Malaysian Journal of Educational Technology, 10 (1), 17-23



  • There are currently no refbacks.

JELTL (Journal of English Language Teaching and Linguistics); Web:; Email:[email protected]

Creative Commons License
JELTL by is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

Indexed and Abstracted BY: