The Dominant Speech Functions in Cigarette Billboard Texts

Muhammad Hasyimsyah Batubara, Dina Syarifah Nasution


This research related to speech functions in cigarette billboard texts. The objectives are to describe the category and to derive dominantly used and explain the factors of the phenomenon of speech functions. The research method used descriptive qualitative. Data was collected by applying documentary techniques from commercial cigarette billboard texts (headline, subhead, slogan and images) in public places around the city center of Medan. The finding describes of the four speech functions available only three are used in commercial cigarette billboard text, statement constitutes 18 (69.25 %), question 1 (3. 8 %), command 7 (26. 9%), and offer 0 from 26 billboard texts. Statement genre used as the dominant one because it is suitable with the pattern of commercial billboard texts, where the viewer assumed only briefly saw the display of images and written text of the billboard with a duration of 5-7 seconds when they were driving. Thus, simple and powerful information in speech function of functional grammar and the language used must be efficient, effective and able to hypnotize readers so that results in positive action on the item being advertised.


advertisement; billboards; speech functions; text

Full Text:



A. L. Herrera & K. E. Pasch. (2018). Targeting Hispanic adolescents with outdoor food & beverage advertising around schools. Journal of Ethnicity & Health, 23(6), 691–702. 10.1080/13557858.2017.1290217

Abideen, Z.-U., & Latif, A. (2011). Do Brand Extensions Affect Consumer Attitude: An Empirical Experience-With Reference To Pakistani Consumers. Journal of Applied Business Research, 27(2), 19–36.

Abidin, A. Z. (2017). Pengaruh Desain Iklan Billboard Rokok Terhadap Tingkat Konsumsi Rokok Masyarakat Kota Palu. Jurnal Online Kinesik, 4(2), 88–99.

Adelaar, T., Chang, S., Lancendorfer, K. M., Lee, B., & Morimoto, M. (2003). Effects of Media Formats on Emotions and Impulse Buying Intent. Journal of Information Technology, 18(4), 247–266.

Al Qudri, Iskandar A. Gani, S. H. (2016). Tanggung Jawab Pemerintah Terhadap Iklan Rokok Yang Merugikan Konsumen Dalam Sistem Hukum Positif. Jurnal Ilmu Hukum Pascasarjana Universitas Syiah Kuala, 4(4), 18–22.

Alstiel, T. and Grow, J. (2007). Advertising Strategy. Singapore: Seng Lee Press.

Arikunto, S. (2006). Prosedure Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktek. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.

Baack, C. (2007). Integrated Advertising, Promotion and marketing Promotion (3rd ed.). New Delhi: Pearson Education.

Bogdan, R.C. and Biklen, K. S. (1982). Qualitative Research for Education: An Introduction to Theory and Methods. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Cahyono, R. A. N. T. (2013). Style And Speech Function On Willingness To Buy Of Bina Nusantara University Student In Garuda Indonesia Inflight Magazine Advertisement. Thesis. Jakarta: (BINUS).

Retrieved from

Carter, R. and M. M. (2006). Cambridge Grammar Of English A Comprehensive Guide Spoken and Written English Grammar and Usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Chopra, G. (2017). A Study on the Relationship Between Customer Attention and Billboards Advertising with Special Reference to Consumer. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (LOSR-JHSS), 22(11), 63–69. 10.9790/0837-2211136369

Cobuild, C. (2011.). English Grammar. Glasgow: Harper Collins Publishers.

Collins, P. (1998). English Grammar. South Melbourne: Longman.

Dalimunte, A. A. (2012). Speech Function and speech role in advertisement on television. Thesis. Medan: (IAIN Sumatea Utara).

Retrieved from

Dhesi, Daljit. (2018). The Uptrend of Outdoor Advertising. Malaysia: Star Media Group Berhad. Available online: (accessed on 9 July 2020).

Downing, Angela and Locke, P. (2006). English Grammar A University Course (Second Edi). USA and Canada: Routledge.

Filiquarian. (2008). Advertising-for- Know-it-alls. USA: Filiquarian Publising LLC.

Fitriyani, D. Z., Setia, E., & Lubis, M. (2019). Speech Function and Process in Fake News. RETORIKA: Jurnal Ilmu Bahasa, 5(1), 1–6.

Gerot, L. and P. W. (1994). Making Sense of Functional Grammar an Introducing Workbook. Sidney: GerdStabler.

Gilson, C & Berkmen, W. . (1980). Advertising: concepts and strategies. Toronto: New York Random House.

Grolier, A. (1992). New Webster’s Dictionary. Connecticut: Grolier Inc.

Hafrianto,J. Sinar, T. S and Nasution, K. (2020). No TitleFungsi Ujaran Dan Proses Dalam Iklan Indomie Versi Arab: Suatu Kajian Linguistik Sistemik Fungsional. Madah: Jurnal Bahasa Dan Sastra, 11(1), 15–25.

Halliday, M. A. . (1994). An Introduction to Functional Grammar. London: Edward Arnold.

Haryono, S. dan Sitorus, D. H. S. (2014). Perlindungan Konsumen Terkait Regulasi Pencantuman Peringatan Kesehatan Pada Kemasan dan Promosi Rokok. Jurnal Penelitian Hukum, 1(3), 117–130.

Hussain, J. & R. K. N. (2011). Factors Affecting Consumer Attention in Billboards Advertising. South Asian Journal of Management Sciences, 5(2), 60–64.

Retrieved from

Leech, G. and J. S. (2003). A Communicative Grammar of English (3rd Edition). London: Routledge.

Mahendra, Y. B. C. ., & Zulham, F. N. (2020). The Analysis Of Speech Functions Used By An Elesp Lecturer In English For Young Learner Class. ELTR Journal, 1(1), 44–53.

Retrieved from

Miles, Matthew. B & Huberman, M. A. (1984). Qualitative Data Analysis. London: Sage Publication, Inc.

Morley, G. D. (2000). An Introduction to Systemic Grammar. Hong Kong: Macmillan.

Muhardis. (2010). Iklan Rokok A Mild: Suatu Tinjauan Semiotik. Jurnal Pelangi, 3(1), 1–9.

Rismayani, N. (2011). Speech Function In Male And Female Language In Television Advertisements.Thesis. Medan: Unimed.

Retrieved from

Saragih, A. (2008). Discourse Analysis: A Systemic Functional Approach the Analysis of Discourse and Texts. Medan: Unpublish.

Saragih, A. (2010). Introducing Systemic Functional Grammar of English. Medan: Unpublished.

Shanty, N. (2014). When Low Class Confronts High Class: An Analysis Of ‘Petruk’ Interpersonal Meaning Through His Speech Functions In Javanese Performing Art ‘Kethoprak.’ PAROLE: Journal of Linguistics and Education, 4(1), 24–37. April.24-37

Sibarani, I.S., & Ringo, L. S. (2017). Realization of Speech Functions in Shampoo’s Slogan in Television Advertisement. International Journal of Linguistics, 9(3), 36–47.

Taylor, G. R. F. & C. R. (2017). Public Perceptions of Billboards: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Advertising, 46(3), 395–410. 10.1080/00913367.2017.1334248

Wahyudihardjo, N. A. C. H. K. (2014). Presupposition and Speech Function In Women Product Advertisements. Thesis. Jakarta: BINUS.

Retrieved from

Weir, W. (1993). How to Create Interest-Evoking, Sales-Inducing, Non-Irritating Advertising. New York: The Haworth Press.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

JELTL (Journal of English Language Teaching and Linguistics); Web:; Email:[email protected]

Creative Commons License
JELTL by is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

Indexed and Abstracted BY: